ISO 10113, ISO 10275, ASTM E345, ASTM E646
n-value indicates material work hardening under plastic deformation, while the r-value indicates the vertical anisotropy. The n-value is determined by tensile stress and strain values; while for the r-value calculation the specimen section measurement is also required.
Specimens are obtained from the strip or sheet at set angles with respect to the lamination direction which affects the r-value. The sheet thickness is retained as specimen thickness, while the parallel length is obtained by milling or punching operations.
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